英语四级六级培训课程

英语新闻的结构特点

时间:2022-5-27 作者:沪江英语网

新闻的类型不少,按分类标准的不同,有各种不一样的分类办法。如根据事件的性质分类,新闻可分为“硬新闻(hard news)和“软新闻”(soft news)两大类,硬新闻也就是“纯新闻消息报道”,指题材严肃,具备肯定时效性的客观事实报道;软新闻是指情感味浓,写作办法诙谐,轻松幽默的社会新闻,不重视时效性。新闻英语中容易见到的体裁主要有三大类:消息(news)、特写(features)和新闻评论(commentaries and columns)。

新闻写作因为记者写作风格不同,文体结构无定格。但大体上说新闻文体的主体结构是由标题、导语、正文三部分组成。

标题(headline):浓缩概括全文的中心实质问题。

导语(1ead or introduction):一般为文章的第一段。文章的第一段提供主要话题和最主要的事实。

正文(body):在导语的基础上,引入更多的与主题有关的事实,使之愈加详实、具体,并展开评论,进而得出结论。

在此大家以消息为例,详细剖析一下它的基本结构。消息类新闻是“硬新闻”,是广泛使用的的一种新闻体裁。消息报道中的导语十分要紧,它坐落于第一段或1、二段。通过它点出新闻的主题,这是消息这种新闻文体不同于其它文体的一个要紧特点。五个W和一个H(When?Where?Who?What?Why?和How?)是构成一则完整的消息不可或缺的要点。直接的消息报道或纯消息报道通常使用“倒金字塔形式”(the Inverted Pyramid Form),其特征是按新闻报道非常重要的五个W和一个H头重脚轻地安排材料,把新闻的高潮和结论放在最前面的导语里,然后以事实的重要程度递减的顺序来安排(in theorder of descending importance)材料。

在报纸、广播、电视等新闻媒体天天刊载和播发的新闻中,百分之九十是用倒金字塔结构写成的。对于报纸来讲,倒金字塔结构的新闻有我们的优势。主如果可以使读者非常快得到新闻的精华部分;在生活步伐愈加快的今天,通常读者极少把一条新闻从头到尾读完,他们可能随时放下报纸,因此,报纸有必要让读者第一读到非常重要的新闻内容。

为了帮助读者知道这种倒金字塔式结构,请见西方新闻学著作中的图表说明:

The Inverted Pyramid Form

Introduction containing most important or most interesting

information导语包含非常重要或最吸引人的消息

more facts 更多的事实材料

supporting information or background 辅助兴消息或背景材料

quotes or more facts of lesser importance引语或次要的事实材料

minor details 细节材料

least significant information 最无关紧要的消息

为了说明“倒金字塔结构”的新闻文体特征,现举美联社2001年11月22日的一篇报道为例:

NOVEMBER 22,19:43EST,2001

28 Killed in Colombia Landslide

By JUAN PABLO TORO

Associated Press Writer

FILADELFIA Colom bia(AP)—Rain-softened walls of a condemned strip mine crashed down on

scores of gold miners in western Colom- bia Thursday,killingat least 28 and leaving 40

others missing,authorities said.

The victims were said to be poor people who ignored government warnings that erosion had

made the mine unsafe.It appeared both the illegal digging and recent heavy rains were to

blame for the accident.

Survivors said two separate mudslides occurred at the site in Filadelfia,a small town

120 miles west of Bogotá.The second avalanche buried miners who were trying to rescue friends who had been engulfed in the first avalanche.

Rescuers shoveled furiously for hours in hopes of finding som- ebody alive,butonly recovered bodies.

As night fell Thursday,national disaster chief Eduardo Jose Gonzalez said hopes of finding anyone alive waned as crews prepared to suspend operations.The search was to resume Friday.

Gonzalez said 28bodies had been recovered,and at least 40 people were missing. Thirty-two miners were reported injured and taken to hospitals.

Hundreds of people had gathered at the scene,many of them anguished and weepingrelatives.

Emergency crews from the Red Cross and

the civil defense forces were using heavy machinery to remove the thick mud spread over

the site.Complicating therecovery effort,huge pools of water had seeped into the site

from a river running up to the hillside—used by the miners to rinse gold particles fromdirt.

Survivors said the earth crashed down without warning on a group of about 200 people trying to scrape gold from the well-worn hill-side.The workers were toiling with shovels

and picks inside a deep hole they had carved into the hill.The cavern had no structural

supports.

Many workers managed to scramble out of the way or crawl out from beneath the mud.

Others were not so lucky.

“We heard a very loud sound and the hill suddenly fell down upon us,”said 20-year-old Manuel Loaiza.“I was trapped up to my knees but some of the others dragged me out.”

Loaiza said he made less than $9a day at the crude mine.His 39-year-old uncle is still missing under the mud.

According to Julian Arboleda,an aide to Caldas State governor Luis Alfonso Arias,of- ficials ordered the mine closed several months ago.But residents thrown out of workby Colom bia’s econom- ic downturn took the risk of working there anyway,Arboleda said.

Landslides triggered by rains are Colombia’s most common natural disaster,killing dozens of people annually.Thursday’s accident was the worst such tragedy in recent years.

According to the government’s disaster relief agency,nearly 200 people died in a poor neighborhood in the city of Medellinwhen a 1987 landslide buried their houses.Landslides buried 150 dam workers in 1983 and a rescue team sent on their behalf.

第一应该注意消息报道导语(第一段)里的“电头”(dateline)“FILADELFIA,Colombia(AP)”即“美联社发自哥伦比亚费拉达菲亚的

消息”。美联社新闻报道的时间一般置于消息的最前面(NOVEMBER 22,19:43EST),即美国的规范时11月22日19点43分。

第一段十分容易明了地告诉读者:星期四,哥伦比亚西部的一露天金矿因为大雨而发生坍塌,至少28人死亡,40人失踪。

第二段增加了新的新闻事实:金矿坍塌的遇难者是贫民,虽然政府警告说因为侵蚀使采矿危险,但他们视而不见;金矿的坍塌可能是因为非法的开采与日前的大雨导致的。这一段支持并扩展了导语。

第三段是背景材料。借助事故的生还者的所见所闻讲述当时的情景:共发生了两次塌方,第二次的塌方将赶去救援的矿工也吞没。

4、5、6、七与第八段均是与主要新闻事实有关的次要紧材料。4、5、7、八段讲述了来自红十字、民防组织与各方救护职员的救援进展状况。第六段也是对导语的进一步扩展:官方宣布事故中有28人死亡,至少40人失踪;有32名矿工受伤被送往医院。

9、10、十一和第十二段也是背景材料,借助目击者的所见所闻进一步描述了金矿坍塌时的情景。

第十3、十四和第十五段均是与新闻事实有关的次要紧的材料:这个金矿几个月以前就关闭了,但因为经济衰退大家又重操旧业;山体滑坡是哥伦比亚最容易见到的自然灾害。

通过剖析大家可以看出这篇新闻报道是典型的“倒金字塔”结构,导语是一段容易了解的叙述。随后的数段对导语进行知道释、补充和扩展,有利地支撑了导语。在导语中基本将“五个W,一个H”交代了解。它所回答的问题分列如下:

Who—gold miners

What—were killed

When—Thursday(Nov.22)

Where—in western Colombia

Why—the walls of mine were softened by rain

How—(were killed)by crash

应该说明,记者即便使用“倒金字塔结构”,也不肯定在导语中全部都包含五个W和一个H,可能只有三个或四个W,另外一个或两个W出目前下面的段落里,这也是容易见到的。

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