时间:2022-5-27 作者:沪江英语网

新闻的类型不少,按分类标准的不同,有各种不一样的分类办法。如根据事件的性质分类,新闻可分为“硬新闻(hard news)和“软新闻”(soft news)两大类,硬新闻也就是“纯新闻消息报道”,指题材严肃,具备肯定时效性的客观事实报道;软新闻是指情感味浓,写作办法诙谐,轻松幽默的社会新闻,不重视时效性。新闻英语中容易见到的体裁主要有三大类:消息(news)、特写(features)和新闻评论(commentaries and columns)。



导语(1ead or introduction):一般为文章的第一段。文章的第一段提供主要话题和最主要的事实。


在此大家以消息为例,详细剖析一下它的基本结构。消息类新闻是“硬新闻”,是广泛使用的的一种新闻体裁。消息报道中的导语十分要紧,它坐落于第一段或1、二段。通过它点出新闻的主题,这是消息这种新闻文体不同于其它文体的一个要紧特点。五个W和一个H(When?Where?Who?What?Why?和How?)是构成一则完整的消息不可或缺的要点。直接的消息报道或纯消息报道通常使用“倒金字塔形式”(the Inverted Pyramid Form),其特征是按新闻报道非常重要的五个W和一个H头重脚轻地安排材料,把新闻的高潮和结论放在最前面的导语里,然后以事实的重要程度递减的顺序来安排(in theorder of descending importance)材料。



The Inverted Pyramid Form

Introduction containing most important or most interesting


more facts 更多的事实材料

supporting information or background 辅助兴消息或背景材料

quotes or more facts of lesser importance引语或次要的事实材料

minor details 细节材料

least significant information 最无关紧要的消息


NOVEMBER 22,19:43EST,2001

28 Killed in Colombia Landslide


Associated Press Writer

FILADELFIA Colom bia(AP)—Rain-softened walls of a condemned strip mine crashed down on

scores of gold miners in western Colom- bia Thursday,killingat least 28 and leaving 40

others missing,authorities said.

The victims were said to be poor people who ignored government warnings that erosion had

made the mine unsafe.It appeared both the illegal digging and recent heavy rains were to

blame for the accident.

Survivors said two separate mudslides occurred at the site in Filadelfia,a small town

120 miles west of Bogotá.The second avalanche buried miners who were trying to rescue friends who had been engulfed in the first avalanche.

Rescuers shoveled furiously for hours in hopes of finding som- ebody alive,butonly recovered bodies.

As night fell Thursday,national disaster chief Eduardo Jose Gonzalez said hopes of finding anyone alive waned as crews prepared to suspend operations.The search was to resume Friday.

Gonzalez said 28bodies had been recovered,and at least 40 people were missing. Thirty-two miners were reported injured and taken to hospitals.

Hundreds of people had gathered at the scene,many of them anguished and weepingrelatives.

Emergency crews from the Red Cross and

the civil defense forces were using heavy machinery to remove the thick mud spread over

the site.Complicating therecovery effort,huge pools of water had seeped into the site

from a river running up to the hillside—used by the miners to rinse gold particles fromdirt.

Survivors said the earth crashed down without warning on a group of about 200 people trying to scrape gold from the well-worn hill-side.The workers were toiling with shovels

and picks inside a deep hole they had carved into the hill.The cavern had no structural


Many workers managed to scramble out of the way or crawl out from beneath the mud.

Others were not so lucky.

“We heard a very loud sound and the hill suddenly fell down upon us,”said 20-year-old Manuel Loaiza.“I was trapped up to my knees but some of the others dragged me out.”

Loaiza said he made less than $9a day at the crude mine.His 39-year-old uncle is still missing under the mud.

According to Julian Arboleda,an aide to Caldas State governor Luis Alfonso Arias,of- ficials ordered the mine closed several months ago.But residents thrown out of workby Colom bia’s econom- ic downturn took the risk of working there anyway,Arboleda said.

Landslides triggered by rains are Colombia’s most common natural disaster,killing dozens of people annually.Thursday’s accident was the worst such tragedy in recent years.

According to the government’s disaster relief agency,nearly 200 people died in a poor neighborhood in the city of Medellinwhen a 1987 landslide buried their houses.Landslides buried 150 dam workers in 1983 and a rescue team sent on their behalf.


消息”。美联社新闻报道的时间一般置于消息的最前面(NOVEMBER 22,19:43EST),即美国的规范时11月22日19点43分。








Who—gold miners

What—were killed


Where—in western Colombia

Why—the walls of mine were softened by rain

How—(were killed)by crash


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