英语四级六级培训课程

托福语法解说:分词

时间:2022-4-11 作者:能飞英语网

分词是动词的又一种非谓语形式,主要分为目前分词(ing为词尾)和过去分词(主要以ed结尾),他们在句中可作定语、状语或表语。

因为作表语的分词总是被视为形容词的使用方法,其使用方法比较容易,这里只着重介绍前两种使用方法如:

exciting news (激动人心的消息), charming girl(迷人的女生),

promising work(有期望的作品), known criminal(臭名昭著的罪犯),

broken bottle(破碎的瓶子)

考试知识点一 目前分词

目前分词和过去分词的主要不同在于:目前分词表主动意义;过去分词表被动意义。

目前分词较过去分词形式灵活,除部分能接宾语以外,可有被动形式(being done)和完成式(having done, having been done), 当然being done和having been done也可理解成过去分词变形为进行式

1. 目前分词作定语

目前分词常接在名词之后作定语,常常可与定语从句替换

如:the man sitting behind me, 等于:the man who is sitting behind me

the kids running about in the garden, 等于:

the kids who are running about in the garden

单个的分词作定语可放在被修饰词之前,如:the sleeping baby, a running nose

改错题中若出现名词之后直接接动词,且之间是主谓关系,但不是句子主谓语,此处一定有错,可改为目前分词作定语

例题:

The slide rule uses sliding scales with marks —- numbers and their logarithms.

(A) representing

(B) represented

(C) are represented

(D) they are representing

答案:A

讲解:空格前是句子的主谓成分,空格处需要marks的定语,C, D可先排除;B是被动式,没办法接宾语numbers; 因此A正确,是目前分词作定语

2. 目前分词作状语

分词还可在句中作状语,可放在句首、句中或句尾。目前分词作状语时,一般都表示主语正在进行的动作/随着动作或者表示缘由。

1.目前分词短语可以作时间状语,等于when, while, as soon as等所引导的从句

如:Hearing the news, he couldn’t help crying.

= When he heard the news, he couldn’t help crying.

2.目前分词短语也可以表示缘由,代替由since, as等所引导的从句

如:Not knowing what to do about the situation, she turned to him for help.

=Since she didn’t know what to do about the situation, she turned to him for help.

Being so poor in those days, we couldn’t afford to go to school.

=As we were so poor in those days, we couldn’t afford to go to school.

3.假如分词表示的动作发生在主句动作之前,那样此时分词就需要用完成形式

如:Having finished the work, she went to the park.

=After she had finished the work, she went to the park.

特别注意:分词状语的逻辑主语和句子的主语要维持一致

如: Seeing from the moutain, the ocean is emrald green.

此句是一个错误的句子, 由于依据分词状语的逻辑主语和句子的主语要维持一致的原则, seeing的逻辑主语也应该是the ocean, 而the ocean是不可以自己seeing的, 应改为Seen from the mountain.

例题:

(1)

Snow aids farmers by keeping heat in the lower ground levels, thereby —- from freezing.

(A) to save the seeds

(B) saving the seeds

(C) which saves the seeds

(D) the seeds saved

答案:B

讲解:thereby一词习惯上接目前分词作句子的结果状语,只有B符合需要

考试知识点二 过去分词

1. 过去分词作定语

与目前分词类似,过去分词作定语常可和定语从句替换, 一般表示被动的意思.

如:a theory derived from rich experience

= a theory that has been derived from rich experience

a gas composed of four chemical elements

= a gas that is composed of four chemical elements

单个分词可放在被修饰词之前,如:distinguished guests, unexpected trouble

改错题中常考目前分词和过去分词的混用,重要看被修饰词和分词代表的动作是主动还是被动关系。

比如: boiling water (沸腾的水,表示正在沸腾); boiled water(开水, 表示已经烧开)

2. 同源目前分词和过去分词做定语有什么区别

有时一个动词词尾分别加上-ing和-ed就构成了一组同源目前分词和过去分词, 如此的例子在英语里不少, 如: interesting/interested, exciting/excited, disappointing/disappointed等, 这类由动词变化而来的分词已经让人们视为形容词了. 但, 同源目前分词和过去分词做定语时的不同之处呢?

目前分词一般表示某个事物的特质, 一般用来修饰某事或某物, 含有“使人(让人)感到…”的意思, 如: an interesting novel, a confusing question等;

过去分词一般表示人的感受或状况, 意思是“…的…”, 如: a worried look (焦虑的神情)

试比较: an interesting boy (一个有趣的女生 – 被人感觉非常有趣)

an interested boy (一个产生了兴趣的女生

同样, 当同源目前分词和过去分词做表语时, 在乎思上也存在同样有什么区别, 如:

The results are very disappointing. (结果非常被人失望)

We are very disappointed at the results. (大家对如此的结果非常失望)

例题:

(1)

The University of Georgia, —-in 1785, was the first state supported university in the United States.

(A) chartered

(B) was chartered

(C) it was chartered

(D) to be chartered

答案:A

讲解:本句主谓结构完整, 缺少的是主语的修饰成分, A构成过去分词短语作定语;B C 的动词结构与原句谓语冲突; D 不定式通常表示马上发生的动作, 与in 1785不符

(2)

Closed plane figures like the square or the equilateral triangle can be grouped into a class —-polygons.

(A) called

(B) to call

(C) is called

(D) call as

答案:A

讲解:此句主谓完整, 句中又无连词, 需填的只可能是非谓语成分, A 是过去分词短语作定语, 等效于which is called, 符合题意. C D 属谓语结构, 与原句谓语冲突; B 不定式表作用与功效或目的, 意思不通

3. 过去分词作状语

过去分词也可放在句首、句中、句尾作句子的状语,常表示事件发生的背景或缘由,

如:Seen from far away, the islands look like a chain of pearls in the midst of the lake.

De

feated in the final, the team gathered to analyze its technical disadvantages.

特别注意:分词状语的逻辑主语和句子的主语要维持一致. 选择题中, 常常需要考生在分词状语部分填入适合的过去分词或目前分词. 到底选择哪种分词, 考生可以采取如此的作题办法: 第一依据“分词状语的逻辑主语和句子的主语要维持一致”的原则确定状语部分的主语, 再判断这个主语和分词是什么关系, 如果是主动关系则应该用目前分词, 如果是被动关系则要用过去分词.

例题:

(1)

—- in 1635, the Boston Latin School is the oldest public school in the United States.

(A) Founded

(B) Founding

(C) To found

(D) Having founded

答案:A

讲解:分词部分的逻辑主语也应当是the Boston Latin School, 它和found之间是被动关系, 所以空格处应填入过去分词

考试知识点三 独立主格结构

独立主格结构是介于分词和主谓句之间的非谓语形式,对于分词来讲其逻辑主语需要和句子的主语维持一致,而独立主格则在非常大程度上克服了这一局限性

1、主要特点

(1) 独立主格是含有主语的分词结构,分词与主语间是主谓关系,

基本形式为:主语+目前分词或过去分词

如:his heart bleeding

the baby crying

the project completed

The school being over, the street was full of the students.

= When the school was over, the street was full of the students.

(2)切记独立主格不等同于主谓结构,

比较:my mind wandering (独立主格);

My mind was wandering (主谓结构)

(3)独立主格的主语和句子主语不同

如:(With) His mouth filled with water, he couldn’t utter a word. (独立主格)

对于分词来讲其逻辑主语需要和句子的主语维持一致:

Filling his mouth with water, he couldn’t utter a word.

2. 在句子中有哪些用途

独立主格结构一般在句中表示时间、条件,缘由、随着状况等

如:The film being over, we had a stroll on the nearby street. (时间)

Weather permitting, I will go fishing with my family. (条件)

Time pressing, they had to work overtime. (缘由)

The leaves rustling in the breeze, I roamed on the country road. (随着)

例题:

(1)

—-modern offices becoming more mechanized, designers are attempting to personalize them with warmer, less severe interiors.

(A) If

(B) But

(C) With

(D)Once

答案:C

讲解:句中主干完整, 主语是designers, 谓语是are attempting, 之后是不定式构成的宾语. 空白后 becoming 采取分词形式, modern offices是becoming的逻辑主语, 因此可确定需填入的词会与原句构成独立主格结构, 而不是从句, A B D可一次性排除, 其实此句除去空白处, 已是完整的句子, 类似句子如: The man entered the room, his hair flying in the air.

注意: 表示随着状况的独立主格结构一般可以由with引导, 如本例题.

声明:本文内容由互联网用户自发贡献自行上传,本网站不拥有所有权,未作人工编辑处理,也不承担相关法律责任。如果您发现有涉嫌版权的内容,欢迎发送邮件至:qpkjz@qq.com 进行举报,并提供相关证据,工作人员会在5个工作日内联系你,一经查实,本站将立刻删除涉嫌侵权内容。