英语四级六级培训课程

托福语法解说:定语从句

时间:2022-4-11 作者:大嘴外教网

在句中充当定语的句子就叫做定语从句,定语从句是由关系代词或关系副词引导的,修饰从句的先行词。

考试知识点一 先行词

先行词严格的讲不是从句的一部分,但因为它是从句修饰的对象,对从句引导词的选择、从句谓语的数都起着决定用途,直接影响到定语从句的主谓一致问题

比如:假如先行词是the girl,表示人,则引导词应是who或whom或that, 从句谓语需要是第三人称单数形式;

She is the girl whom I saw in the zoo yesterday.

She is the girl who sells computer.

假如先行词是the goods, 则引导词是that或which, 从句谓语是第三人称复数形式

Do you get the photos that I sent last week.

例题:

Resin is a substance that —- in water.

(A) does not dissolve

(B) do not dissolve

(C) not dissolving

(D) not dissolved

答案:A

讲解:此句主句是系表结构,表语substance由that引导的定语从句修饰, 空格处需要从句的谓语,C和D都是分词,没办法独立作谓语,第一排除;substance是单数,依据从句主谓一致原则,动词也应是单数,故A正确

考试知识点二 关系代词

大多数定语从句都由关系代词引导,主要的关系代词包含:that, who, which, whom, whose,

其中可以代替人(指先行词)的是:that, who, whom;

代替物的是that, which;

whose之前既可接人又可接物,但需要和名词搭配用。

关系代词在从句中需要承担语法成分,可作从句的主语或宾语:

作主语的关系代词是:that, who, which, whose,它们在从句中不可省略;

作宾语的是:that, whom, which, 它们在从句中可省略

注意:在作主语的关系代词中whose是唯一可和另一名词连用的

作从句主语的句子,如:

She’s got a parrot that / which can speak “hello”.

He’ the man who /that takes charge of this department.

Have you noticed the lady whose hair has gone grey?

作从句宾语的句子,如:

Is she the one (whom /that) you’re looking for?(for之后不要加her)

Show me the book (that /which) you read just now.(read之后不要加it)

考试知识点三 介词前置于关系代词

当关系代词作句中介词的宾语时,介词可以前置于关系代词,此时关系代词不可以省略,而且只可以用which或whom.

如:This is the road by which we came.

That is the man about whom we have heard so much.

注意:先行词为the way的定语从句中in which习惯上可以省略

This is the way (in which) I make the problem out.

例题:

(1)

And ideal is a standard —- people judge phenomena.

(A) how

(B) of

(C) by which

(D) for it

答案:C

讲解:空格前后都是主谓结构,可知需填入从句引导词,B, D可先排除;依句意应构成定语从句,故选C

(2)

In reorganizing the curriculum of Mt. Holyoke College in the late1800’s Elizabeth Mead laid the foundation —- the modern college rests.

(A) is which

(B) on which

(C) which is on

(D) on it

答案:B

讲解:空格前后都有主谓结构, 显然空格处需要从句引导词, A、D可先排除, 从句已有主语college, C也一定不对, 只有B是正确的定语从句, 其中词组rest on中的介词前置于关系代词which

考试知识点四 关系副词

定语从句还可以由关系副词when, where或why引导,关系副词在从句中作时间、地址或缘由状语

如:Have you ever been to the house where he used to live? (where=in which)

I could hardly forget the day when my uncle passed away. (when=on which)

Tell me the reason why I am fired. (why=for which)

例题:

(1)

The knee is the joint—-the thigh bone meets the large bone of the lower leg.

(A) when

(B) where

(C) why

(D) which

答案:B

讲解:空白处前后都包括主谓结构, 句意上后句是对前句joint一词的讲解, 可推知需要填入定语从句引导词, 又因从句中主谓宾语俱全, 可知缺少的是表地址的关系副词, 那末A、C、D 均可排除

考试知识点五 定语从句类别

定语从句可分为限定性和非限定性两种,其主要不同为:

1. 非限定性定语从句中,引导词和先行词之间需用逗号隔开。

2. 非限定性定语从句中,引导词通常不需要that,

在修饰人时用who, whom, whose

He had three children, all of whom had graduated from college.

在修饰物时用 which

3. 限定性定语从句是句子必不可少的部分,去掉会导致句意不清;而非限定性定语从句只不过补充说明有哪些用途,有无对句意影响不大,翻译时常译作独立的句子,而不是定语

对比下列句子:

He refused to reveal the man who had beaten him black and blue. (man是特定的)

I no longer live in Beijing, where air pollution did great harm to my health.

(Beijing是大家都知道的,不需要限定,若限定则意味着世界上有不止一个北京)

托福考的基本都是限定性定语从句

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