英语四级六级培训课程

大学习英语六级考试虚拟语气解说

时间:2022-4-30 作者:阿卡索外教网

名词性从句中的虚拟语气

第一节:宾语从句(Subordinate Clasue)中的虚拟语气

1、在动词wish后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气

在动词wish后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气,常省去宾语从句的引导词that。

一)、对目前状况的虚拟(与目前的事实相反):

从句用过去式或过去进行式(时间上是同时的)。其句子结构为:宾语从句的谓语be和were(was),实义动词用过去式。例:< /p>

1. I wish (that可省略,下同)I knew the answer to the question.(wish, 动词过去式knew)我期望了解这个答案。(事实上是不了解)

2. I wish it were spring in my hometown all the year around.(wish, were)但愿我的家乡四季如春。(事实上不可能)

3. I wish I were a bird.(wish, were)但愿我是只小鸟。(事实上不可能)

4. When she was at the party,she wished she were at home.(wished,过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不在家)

5. Now that he is in China, he wishes he understood Chinese.(wishes,过去虚拟动词understood)

目前他在中国,他期望能了解中文。(事实上并不懂)

6. When we begin the trip, they will wish they were with us.(will wish,过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不和大家在一块)

二)、对过去状况的虚拟(和过去的事实相反):

用wish表示对过去事情的遗憾。其句子结构为:宾语从句的谓语用过去完成时,或would, could, might+目前完成时。例:

1. I wish (that可省略,下同)I hadn’t wasted so much time.

我后悔不该浪费这么多时间。(事实上已浪费了)

2. He wishes he hadn’t lost the chance.

他真期望没失去机会。(其实已失去)

3. We wished he had spoken to us.

(wished,had + spoken)(事实上他并没同大家讲)

4. I wish you had called earlier.

(wish, had + called)(事实上已迟了)

5. They will wish they had listened to us sooner.

(will wish,had + listened)(事实上并不这样)

例题剖析:I wish I ______ longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class.

A. could have slept B. sleptC. might have slept D. have slept

动词wish后面接从句,表达不可能达成或与事实相反的状况时,谓语动词要用虚拟语气,即 用过去式(表示目前发生的动作)或过去完成式(表示过去发生的动作)。本题后半句谓语动词have用的是过去时had

to get up and come, 所以前面要用过去完成时表示过去发生的动作。所以, 选项A)could have slept是答案

三)、对以后状况的虚拟(表示以后的主观愿望):

从句动词"would/should/could/might + 动词原形"(时间上较后)(请注意:主句和从句的主语不相同)。用 wish表示对以后事情的愿望。例:

1. I wish it would sTOP raining.(虚拟动词would+动词原形sTOP)

我期望雨能停止。(事实上雨还在下着呢)

2. I wish you would be quiet.(would + be)

我期望你安静一些。(事实上那家伙还在吵着呢)

3. You wished she would arrive the next day.(would + arrive)

你期望她第二天会到。(事实上她还没有到)

4. I wish she would change her mind.(would + change)

我期望她会改变主意。(呵呵,女生可没那样容易就改变主意喔)

5. He will wish we would join him the following week.(would + join)

(只不过期望大家和他在一块,事实上还没有在一块)

四)、注意:

1.假如将wish改为过去式wished, 其后that 从句中的动词形式不变。比如:

I wished I hadn’t spent so much money.

我如果那时没花掉那样多钱就好了。

2. 假如that 从句中用would , 通常表示对近况不满或期望将来有所改变或请求

I wish he would answer my letter.

I wish prices would come down.

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