英语四级六级培训课程

托福阅读材料之社会话题

时间:2022-4-30 作者:星沙英语网

关于托福阅读插空题,大家第一要找到线索词。所谓线索词,就是可以让大家知道句子之间逻辑或者语法联系的词,线索词亦是解题的重要。下面我们就给大伙整理了几类线索词并附有例子来讲明具体的办法。

线索词种类:

第一类:代词 eg. this, it, they

假如要插入的句子中有代词,可是代词所指代的内容又没出目前句子本身,那样大家就可以参考代词的单复数等性质找到它指代的内容,再插入到该句之后。

For example:

Where would the sentence best fit?

This is a question that has puzzled scientists for ages.

Extinct but already fully marine cetaceans are known from the fossil record. ■How was the gap between a walking mammal and a swimming whale bridged? ■Missing until recently were fossils clearly intermediate, or transitional, between land mammals and cetaceans. ■Very exciting discoveries have finally allowed scientists to reconstruct the most likely origins of cetaceans. ■In 1979, a team looking for fossils in northern Pakistan found what proved to be the oldest fossil whale.

看到了this,明显指代的是前文所提到的内容。再依据句子后半部分a question that has puzzled scientists for ages, 获悉this的指代内容原来是个question, 并且是科学难点。再看原文的四个插入点,第二个就明显非常适合了。

第二类:名词 eg. 在句子中的形式通常为:this/these/such/another…+名词

假如句子中的线索词不是第一类的代词,而是以第二类的这种形式出现,那样这个最后的名词就是大家的线索词,同学们要对于这个词维持敏锐。这个名词通常会在原文已经出现过,大家要找到这个地方,再把句子插入适合的地方。之后要考虑句子插入后是不是与插入口后面的句子维持正确的逻辑关系,假如逻辑通顺就OK了!

For example:

Where would the sentence best fit?

This economic reliance on livestock in certain regions makes large tracts of land susceptible to overgrazing.

■ the raising of livestock is a major economic activity in 百度竞价推广iarid lands, where grasses are generally the dominant type of natural vegetation. ■The consequences of an excessive number of livestock grazing in an area are the reduction of the vegetation cover and the trampling and pulverization of the soil. ■This is usually followed by the drying of the soil and accelerated erosion.■

这里的线索词就是economic reliance,回去原文找根源,第二个插入口前面一句the raise of livestock is a major economic activity…,发现economic reliance就是major economic activity就是同义转换。但这时不要过于着急把句子插进第二个插入口,你想一下啊,大概作者在说这个TOPic的时候,大概用了几个句子来讲解,所以要严谨一些,看看假如插入第二个口,和右侧句子的意思是不是能衔接。这个例子中,插入句子描写了一个不好的结果—overgrazing,而第二个插入口后一句话就是写了consequences of excessive grazing,因此逻辑上也是通顺的,可以安心地把句子放在第二个插入口了!

第三类:逻辑词 eg.however/but /thus/accordingly/consequently/hence …

以上两类线索词都是依据文中的语法联系来解题的,可是有的题目中的插入句没这两类线索词,那样它的线索词就可能是一些表示因果、转折等各种逻辑关系的逻辑词,举例来讲就是,however/but…这种表转折和 thus/accordingly …这种表因果关系的词,相信大伙在写作的时候已经把这类词倒背如流了吧!这些的插入题可能比前两类线索词的题要相对难一些,由于干扰项会比较强大,但只须细心,理清前后句的逻辑关系,同学们还是可以攻克的!

For example:

Where would the sentence best fit?

Consequently, tunas do not need to suck in water.

■Because they are always swimming, tunas simply have to open their mouths and water is forced in and over their gills. ■Accordingly, they have lost most of the muscles that other fishes use to suck in water and push it past the gills. ■In fact, tunas must swim to breathe. ■They must also keep swimming to keep from sinking, since most have largely or completely lost the swim bladder, the gas-filled sac that helps most other fish remain buoyant.

这个题目中,插入句句首的consequently就是一个表结果的线索词,表明前文所说的事情致使了tunas 无需吸入水。大家看到第二个插入点的前一句话说,tunas张开嘴,水就会被推进他们的嘴里,假如把插入句放在这句后面逻辑上是十分连贯的。可是一些人会感觉第三个插入点也非常适合,由于这个插入点的前一句说,tunas失去了其他鱼用来吸水的肌肉,假如后面说tunas无需吸水貌似也合理,但应该注意,插入句用的是需要(need),假如tunas失去了肌肉,那样就是否需无需,而是能不能了。插入第二个插入点后,再检查下前后文的连贯,发现非常合适。假如放在第三个插入点的话,和后文的衔接就会变得奇怪。因此,同学们要细心一些,记得检查!

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