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英格兰湖区牧羊人 45000人为之着迷的生活

时间:2022-5-2 作者:能飞英语网

The Herdwick Shepherd, James Rebanks, is the latest of several generations to have tended flocks in the Lake District, but he now has a book and 45,000 Twitter followers entranced by the starkly beautiful scenes he photographs every day. Here he explains what his life is like and why his documenting of it appeals to so many people.

牧羊人詹姆斯·理班克斯是湖区最新几代放牧人中的一员,他已经出版了一本书,在twitter(Twitter)上有45000个粉,大伙都被他天天用相机被拍下的纯粹自然美景迷住了。下面他给大家介绍了他天天的生活,与为何他的记录能吸引这么多人。

People have farmed sheep and cattle in the English uplands for 4-5,000 years – it is a culture as old as the pyramids.

在英格兰的高地上,大家牧羊牧牛的历史已经长达4、五千年了,这是一种跟金字塔一样久远的文化。

The Lake District fells are mostly "common land" – with legal grazing rights held by the graziers (the landlord often has no grazing rights). I have always been involved in the family farm and have worked with the sheep since I was very small with my grandfather. Today we farm about 600 sheep.

湖区的高地大都是公共用地,放牧权由放牧人持有(地主一般没放牧权)。自我小时候起,我就一直和我爷爷在自己家里的牧场里一块放羊。现在,大家有差不多600只羊。

英格兰湖区牧羊人 45000人为之着迷的生活

I started tweeting about three years ago, initially as an experiment to see if anyone was interested. It quickly became clear that they were in large numbers. I have written poems and journalism for more than 15 years, and realised that this was a good way to be creative with pictures and words about our way of life. We now have 44,000 followers and some recent video clips of our puppies were viewed 600,000 times.

我大约从3年前开始发twitter,刚开始只不过想看看有无人有兴趣。非常快大家就发现不少人都非常喜欢。我有15年的写诗和做新闻的经验,我发现用图片和文字记录大家的生活方法非常有新意。大家目前有44000个粉,近期大家家小狗的一些视频短片已经有60万次播放量了。

The Lake District is the UK’s nominated site for World Heritage status in 2016-17 – its unique pastoral farming system is a key part of its historic significance. It is one of the world’s most amazing surviving historic farming landscapes.

湖区是英国境内入选2016-17年世界文化遗产提名的地方,它独特的畜牧系统是给这个地方赋予历史性意义的重要。那里有世界上现存的最让人叹为观止的畜牧景观。

The children’s author Beatrix Potter left 15 farms and 4,000 acres in her will to the National Trust and specified the need to protect and sustain the traditional Herdwick farming system. The trust owns many thousands of sheep in its landlord’s flocks and they are taken on by the tenants of their farms.

儿童文学作家比阿特丽克斯·波特在她的遗嘱里给National Trust(旨在保护英国最具历史价值和自然美的土地与建筑的组织)赠与了15个牧场和4000英亩的土地,并指明要用于保护和保持传统的赫德威克畜牧系统。在地主的牧场里,这个组织拥有数千只绵羊,它们由牧场的承包人照管。

Herdwick sheep are native to the Lake District. There are about 50,000 breeding females, but the number is declining due to environmental schemes – 95% of them live in a 20-mile radius of each other. They are classed as "at risk" because of the threats to them.

赫德威克绵羊是湖区当地的品种。仍能繁育的雌性绵羊大约有5万只,但因为政府开发地产致使环境破坏,这个数字正在降低,它们中95%都相互隔着20英里的距离。因为种种威胁,它们已经被列为濒危物种。

Herdwick sheep are "hefted", which means they hold without fences to a place on the fell, or hill or mountain, because they are taught a sense of belonging by their mothers in their first summer. This stretches back countless centuries and has never been broken.

赫德威克绵羊是非常“恋家”的。也就是说,在高地或者山上,不需要篱笆圈起来它们都会自己待在某一块地方,由于在它们出生后的第一个夏季,母羊会教它们不要离开是它们的地方。这种现象已经有好几个世纪的历史了,而且从未被打破过。

DNA analysis suggests that Herdwick sheep really did come by boat with the Vikings a thousand or more years ago. Their closest relatives live far to the north.

DNA剖析表明,赫德威克绵羊确实是一千多年前由维京人船运带来的。与它们血缘关系近期的物种都生活在遥远的北方。

Because flocks graze the fells together a system of lug (ear) and smit (body) marks has evolved to identify the sheep, and these are captured in the Lake District Shepherd’s Guide which has been published for more than 200 years. Similar systems exist for reindeer herders in Norway and Sweden.

由于不一样的羊群会一块在高地上吃草,所以牧羊人有一套耳朵和身体的标识系统来区别不一样的羊群,这种办法被记录在了200多年前出版的《湖区牧羊指南》里。挪威和瑞典的驯鹿牧人也用着类似的系统。

The average income of a Lake District fell farmer is ?8,500, according to figures from Newcastle University. Lambs are sold for a quarter of their real price in 1970.

依据纽卡斯尔大学的数据,湖区高地农场主的平均收入是8500英镑。在1970年,羊的价格只是它真的价值的四分之一。

It is a tough way to make a living.

他们的生活十分艰难。

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