英语四级六级培训课程

怎么样叫你的托福写作大放异彩

时间:2022-5-9 作者:阿卡索外教网

闪光的托福作文包括四个要点:

1、完整性:句子结构完整,意义完整;

2、连贯性:句子各部分之间与句子之间的关系紧密、协调,前后意思连贯,思想表达了解有序;

3、简单性:言简意赅;

4、多样性:包含词语多样性和句子多样性。

以上四要点中,前三个要点是首要条件和基础,很容易做到;多样性是对前三个要点的升华,是作文亮点的核心和重要所在。

托福词语多样性:

词语贫乏是中国学生英语作文的通病。整篇作文一个词用到底,从不作任何变化:一遇见“改变/变化”就是change,“影响”就是effect,“时尚”就是popular,“觉得”就是think; 每逢“由于”就是because,“意识到”就是realize,“想到”就是think of 等等。其实英语词语非常丰富的,同一个意思可以由不少不一样的方法表达。

句子多样性:

单调的句式和结构、长度相近的句子使作文呆板单调,缺少生动性和说服力;而灵活多变的句子样式和结构则使作文语言生动,自然流畅,丰富多彩。具体包含以下几个方面:

1长短句变换:容易句、并列句和复合句交替运用

长句准确生动,长于说明推理;短句简单明快,意义明确,印象深刻,描述动作,表明主旨,概要总结,非短句不可。既然各有所长,在写作时应依据实质需要,交替用容易句、并列句和复合句,以达到“段间长短不一,全篇句式万千”、多姿多彩的成效,给读者与阅卷老师以永恒的新鲜感。

2结构多样化

大家学过非谓语动词结构(包含不定式结构和分词结构),无动词结构,分隔结构,比较结构,独立结构,with复合结构,特殊否定结构,it结构,平行结构,强调结构,倒装结构,等等。其中最为神通广大的是非谓语动词结构,在句中或作主语、宾语,或作表语、宾语补足语,或作定语修饰名词,或作状语表示条件、缘由、让步、时间、方法、目的、结果、随着情况等,不一而足。

非谓语动词结构可以简化大多数英语从句,产生语言简练,结构多姿多彩的成效,请看下列转化实例:

名词从句可转化为非谓语动词结构

1. That John won the marathon surprised us.

John’s winning the Marathon surprised us.

2. I have not decided whether I should vote for Clint.

I have not decided whether to vote for Clint.

定语从句可转化为非谓语动词结构

1. The man (who is) standing at the gate is my English teacher.

2. The car (that was) repaired yesterday by him is my mother’s.

3. The next train that arrives is from New York.

状语从句可转化为非谓语动词结构

1. After he had watered the garden, he began to mow the lawn.

Having watered the garden, he began to mow the lawn.

2. When they are heated metals expand.

(When) Heated, metals expand.

3. Because I do not know what to do next, I want to ask for your advice.

Not knowing what to do next, I want to ask for your advice.

4. I spoke slowly and clearly in order that the audience could understand me.

…in order for the audience to understand me.

5. If we are united, we stand; if we are pided, we fail.

United, we stand; pided, we fail.

6. Though he has lived in Canada for tree years, he still cannot speak English well.

Having lived in Canada for three years, he still cannot speak English well.

无动词结构也是阅卷老师喜欢看到的闪光点,缘由就是因为汉语写作惯性,中国学生极少能想到用该结构。这种结构实质上是SVC结构的省略,包含形容词无动词结构、名词无动词结构(即同位结构)和介词无动词结构,总是放在句子开头,以逗号同主句隔开,表示缘由、条件、让步、补充说明,随着情况等意义。请看下列例子:

形容词无动词结构

1. Big and fat, Victor went to the Gym(健身会所) every Sunday morning.(缘由)

2. Speechless, Henry nodded and sat on a folding seat.(随着状语)

3. Anxious for a quick decision, the chairman called for a vote.(缘由)

4. (Although)always helpful, he was not much liked by people.(让步)

5. It has little taste, unless hot.(条件)

名词无动词结构

6. A fellow Georgian(佐治亚人), Jordan was well-known as a friend of the President.(同位语)

7. Bank loan or no bank loan, we’ll buy the house.(让步)

8. Whatever the reason, his cordiality(诚恳)to her has won him a friend.(让步)

介词无动词结构

9. Because of his mistake several people died.(缘由)

10. Without his sister’s money, Harry would never be a doctor.(条件)

因为写作惯性,同学们写英语作文时,非常可能不会想到上述结构,而是写成分句,比如上述例1和例2可能写成:

1b. Because he was big and fat, Victor went to the Gym every Sunday morning.

2b. Henry nodded and sat on a folding seat, and kept speechless.

相比之下不难发现,无动词结构比分句成效更好,更地道,更简练,同时又丰富了作文的句子结构,不只让读者和阅卷老师为之眼前一亮!

3主语多样化

中国人习惯于用人称主语,而英语中则常用无灵主语(inanimate subject),即无生命的事物作主语,如:

1.The last two decades has witnessed earth-shaking changes in China.

中国在过去的二十年中发生了翻天覆地的变化。

2. A strange peace came over her when she was alone.

她独处时感到一种特别的安宁。

3. I am very sorry that the pressure of other occupations has prevented me from sending an earlier reply to your letter.

因为我近来事务繁忙,没能给于及早回复,对此我表示深深的歉意。

4. The smallest excuse would have served.

其实,你随便找个就算最小的借口就好了。

5. That night sleep eluded me.

那天晚上我彻夜未眠。

6. The old house has seen better days.

这座老宅的主人曾过着更好的生活。

7. Everything at the party spoke of careful planning.

派对上的所有都说明主人进行了精心策划。

8.A terrible thought suddenly struck me—had I locked the door?

我忽然产生了一个可怕的想法——我锁门了吗?

9. When he had to speak, his confidence suddenly deserted him.

等到不能不说话时,他却忽然没了信心。

在英语中没生命的事物作主语,来作为动作的发出者是相当常见的现象,几乎和人称主语句平分秋色。但因为受汉语思维的束缚,大家总是感觉人作主语更自然,因此大部分状况下,大家中国学生不假思索地采取汉语的思维去表达,如上述例1、例5和例9,非常或许会写作如下的样子:

1b. Great changes have taken place in China in the last two decades.

5b. I failed to fall into sleep that night.

5c. I kept awake all through that night.

9b. When he had to speak, he suddenly lost confidence.

大家既然已经知道了英语的这种独特思维,写托福作文时,大家要有意识地根据英语的思维去表达,如此不只能写出地道的英语句子,也防止了作文中千篇一律的“人”主宰所有的枯燥和沉闷的环境。

4开头多样化

开头除去用主语外,还可以用各种各样的结构

1. An expert in forest fire control, the forest ranger talked to the campers about safety in the woods.同位语

2. Angry, Mr. Boyd began to defend his reputation with strong arguments.形容词短语

3. Tired and dirty, the boys returned to the camp.形容词短语

4. Jogging every day, I soon increased my energy level.目前分词短语

5. Troubled by a dream, Tim woke up with a start.过去分词

6. To succeed in that course, you must attend every class.不定式短语

7. In the scientific laboratory, Madame Curie was an industrious worker.介词短语

8. Because he was tired and discouraged, he did not want to rewrite the paper.缘由状语句

9. What you impulsively do in haste you may regret( )in leisure.宾语从句提前

5运用修辞手法:排比;对偶

1. I came, I saw, I conquered. 我来了,我看了,我征服(凯撒大帝语)

2. He was well-known, well-respected, and well-loved.

3. The proof of gold is fire; the proof of woman, gold; the proof of man, a woman.火可以检验真金,金子可以检验女性,而女性可以检验男性。

4. Government of the people, by the people and for the people shall not perish from the earth.这个民有、民主、民享的政府永远也不会从地球上消失

5. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. (摘自马丁·路德·金的著名演说I Have a Dream)

6. The power of French literature is in its prose writers; the power of English literature is in its poets.法国文学长于散文;英国文学优于诗歌。

7. A long journey tests a horse’s strength; a long acquaintance shows a man’s heart. 路遥知马力,日久见人心。

以上例句中,前五个运用排比修辞格,步伐优美,语势强烈,感染力强;后两句运用这类的诀窍可以称为金科玉律(Golden Rules),却一点也不复杂,对偶修辞格,言简意赅,意义隽永。学会了上述办法将会叫你的托福作文语言大放异彩。

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