英语四级六级培训课程

拯救日本“隐蔽年轻人”

时间:2022-5-11 作者:快乐英语网

When the Kimura family moved here from Tokyo, their middle school-aged daughter missed her old friends. Midway into her first year in high school, she sTOPped going. Between 14 and 19, she barely left the house, and for one year hardly left her room, interacting only with her parents.

木村(Kimura)一家刚从东京搬到这里的时候,家上初中的女儿十分想念她的老友。高中一年级念了一半,她就辍学了。14至19岁期间,她基本不出家门,过去有整整一年几乎没离开过我们的房间,而且只跟爸爸妈妈交际。

Now 33 and recovered, Ms. Kimura says she was “hikikomori.” That’s the name of a type of social withdrawal that can be so severe, people with it don’t leave their houses for years. It’s also what those who suffer from the condition are called.

现年33岁的木村女性说,她曾是个“隐蔽年轻人”(hikikomori)。“隐蔽年轻人症候群”指的是一种社交退缩症,这种病症或许会达到相当紧急的地步,病人终年不出家门。“隐蔽年轻人”则用来指代罹患此病的群体。

隐蔽年轻人

The puzzling condition is often thought of as a Japanese phenomenon, affecting an estimated 500,000 to two million in Japan, according to projections from academic surveys. Published reports also have described cases in the U.S., Hong Kong and Spain, among other countries.

这一让人迷惑不解的病症常常被视为一种日本社会现象。据学者调查推断,日本约有50万至200万人深受其害。而在已发表的报告中,对于美国、香港、西班牙和其他国家的有关案例也有描述。

In Japan, hikikomori has been a household word since the 1990s, with many experts calling it one of the biggest social and health problems plaguing the country. Yet the causes and treatments of the condition—or even whether it’s a mental illness or not—remain poorly understood. And while the Japanese government has poured significant funds into helping hikikomori, treatment success rates remain low.

20世纪90年代以来,“隐蔽年轻人”成为日本每人皆知的一个词语。很多专家将其视为制约日本进步的一大社会与心理健康问题。然而,大家对其产生的原 因、治疗办法,甚至这是不是应该被归为一种心理问题,都知之甚少。尽管日本政府已投入很多资金帮“隐蔽年轻人”,但治愈率依旧非常低。

The condition illustrates the difficulty of defining mental illness and raises questions about the role society plays in shaping, allowing or even creating problematic behavior. Researchers in Fukuoka have set up an international collaboration to try to answer some of these questions.

“隐蔽年轻人症候群”充分证明了心理问题的界定困难程度,也质疑了社会在问题行为上有哪些用途,包含社会对问题行为的影响和容忍,甚至包含问题行为是不是由社会引发。福冈的研究职员已发起一项国际合作项目,试图形解析开这类疑问。

Solving the hikikomori riddle has taken on greater urgency in recent years. Sufferers often are men in their 20s and 30s who would be in the workforce but instead are being supported largely by their parents. Government officials worry about who will take responsibility for long-term hikikomori when their parents retire or die.

近年来,揭开“隐蔽年轻人症候群”谜题已变得更加迫切。“隐蔽年轻人”多为20岁至30岁的男士。本该在工作的他们现在反而基本倚靠爸爸妈妈供养。政府官员们担忧,一旦他们的爸爸妈妈退休或去世,将无人为“隐蔽年轻人”负责。

Fukuoka, a city of 1.5 million 550 miles southwest of Tokyo, about four years ago opened a support center, which the Japanese government requires of every prefecture in the country. 福冈坐落于东京西南方1,500,550英里。大约四年前,根据日本政府对各县市的需要,福冈开设了一家“隐蔽年轻人”援助中心。

Called Yokayoka, which means, “It’s OK, don’t worry about it,” in the local dialect, the one-room support center is linked to a youth employment facility. The center primarily fields phone calls from hikikomori or, more often, their worried parents. It also offers support groups for hikikomori and their parents. However, only a small number of hikikomori actually show up at the center. Of those, a minority are treated successfully, staffers say.

援助中心名叫“Yokayoka”,当地方言的意思是“没事儿,别担忧”。这家援助中心只有一个单间,与一所年轻人就业机构相连。援助中心的主要工作 任务是接听“隐蔽年轻人”的电话,但来电的更多是忧心忡忡的爸爸妈妈。他们也为“隐蔽年轻人”及其爸爸妈妈成立了互助小组。但员工称,仅有少数“隐蔽年轻人”会来, 而他们中只有一小部分被成功治愈。

Takahiro Kato, a professor in the neuropsychiatry department at Kyushu University in Fukuoka, is working with the support center to study hikikomori in a more rigorous and systematic way. Dr. Kato and a team of Japanese and international collaborators that includes Alan Teo, a psychiatry professor at Oregon Health & Science University, want to better define what hikikomori is. They also hope to understand the social and biological underpinnings of the condition to improve treatments.

加藤贵裕(Takahiro Kato)是福冈九州大学神经精神学科的一名教授。他正与援助中心合作,用更严谨系统的办法对“隐蔽年轻人症候群”进行研究。加藤博士及其所属的一支包含日 本和国际专家在内的合作团队,正试图为“隐蔽年轻人症候群”下一个更为明确的概念。俄勒冈健康与科学大学神经病学教授张艾伦(Alan Teo)也是团队成员之一。该合作团队还期望知道这种病症的社会和生理原因,并改变治疗办法。

People who consider themselves hikikomori exhibit a wide range of symptoms, including depressive, autistic and obsessive-compulsive tendencies. A minority appear addicted to the Internet, says Dr. Kato, a 40-year-old psychiatrist.

现年40岁的精神病学家加藤博士称,那些自认“隐蔽年轻人”的群体表现出的症状各有不同,包含抑郁症、自闭症儿童和强迫倾向,少数人网络成瘾。

Yossy, 31, came for a recent hikikomori support group. He says he didn’t leave his parents’ house for six months after harassment from his boss at his speech therapy internship led him to quit. After that, he did begin to visit friends occasionally and volunteer at a library. But after four years, he still hasn’t held a full-time job.

31岁的Yossy最近曾到援助中心来参加过互动小组。他表示,自己曾是一名语言障碍矫正实习医师,因老板骚扰而离职,之后他有半年一直待在爸爸妈妈家。从那将来,他偶尔也去会见朋友,或者在图书馆做义工。但四年过去了,他仍然没一份全职工作。

Hikikomori appears to be a condition distinct from other mental illnesses, Japanese experts say. Only about half of those with the condition would be diagnosed with a disorder in the U.S. psychiatric diagnostic manual commonly known as DSM-5, according to one survey of 4,134 Japanese residents published in Psychiatry Research in 2010. But large-scale survey data on hikikomori remains limited.

日本专家们觉得,“隐蔽年轻人症候群”好像有别于其他精神疾病。一项针对4134名日本居民的调查显示,仅有约一半的“隐蔽年轻人”符合美国精神病掌握 《精神障碍诊断与统计手册》(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,俗称DSM-5)的诊断标准,会被诊断为精神障碍。调查结果发布在2010年的《神经病学研究》杂志上。但针对“隐蔽年轻人症候群”的 大规模调查数据仍然非常有限。

Japanese experts point to strict parenting practices and pressure that children feel to succeed as contributing factors. Yet hikikomori often live with their parents, and these parents can be soft in forcing their children to go to school or leave the home. They often bring trays of food to their bedroom doors.

日本专家指出,严厉的家庭教育和成功重压是“隐蔽年轻人症候群”的因素。“隐蔽年轻人”常常与爸爸妈妈同住,而他们的爸爸妈妈在敦促小孩上学或离家方面却表现得心慈手软。他们常把食物端到小孩的房门口。

Current thinking is that providing hikikomori with positive social interactions will help them reintegrate with the outside world. Michiko Asami, president of the nonprofit that runs Yokayoka, welcomes each hikikomori with a big smile and tries to initiate a nonjudgmental conversation. Sometimes they sit silently for multiple sessions or won’t look at her. Gradually, some do.

现在来看,为“隐蔽年轻人”提供积极的社会互动或有助于恢复他们与外面的联系。负责Yokayoka援助中心运作的非营利性机构主席浅海美智子 (Michiko Asami)笑容满面地欢迎每一位“隐蔽年轻人”的到来,她试图发起一次无偏见的对话。有时,“隐蔽年轻人们”会在小组交谈时静静地坐着,亦或根本不看她。渐 渐的,一些人开始参与进去。

Vocabulary

hikikomori: 隐蔽年轻人,蛰居族

social withdrawal: 社交退缩症

projection: 推断

plague: 折磨

neuropsychiatry: 神经精神病学

psychiatry: 精神病学

underpinning: 基础

autistic: 自闭症的

obsessive-compulsive: 强迫性神经(官能)症的

nonjudgmental: 无偏见的

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