英语四级六级培训课程

几种基本的句子结构

时间:2022-5-25 作者:星火英语网

1、句型1: Subject (主语) + Verb (谓语)

这种句型中的动词大多是不及物动词,所谓不及物动词,就是这种动词后不能直接接宾语。容易见到的动词如:work, sing, swim, fish, jump, arrive, come, die, disappear, cry, happen等。如:

1) Li Ming works very hard.李明学习非常努力。

2) The accident happened yesterday afternoon.事故是昨天下午发生的。

3)Spring is coming.

4) We have lived in the city for ten years.

2、句型2:Subject (主语) + Link. V(系动词) + Predicate(表语)

这种句型主要用来表示主语的特征、身份等。其系动词通常可分为下列两类:

(1)表示状况。如此的词有:be, look, seem, smell, taste, sound, keep等。如:

1) This kind of food tastes delicious.这种食物吃起来非常美味。

2) He looked worried just now.刚刚他看起来有的焦急。

(2)表示变化。这种系动词有:become, turn, get, grow, go等。如:

1) Spring comes. It is getting warmer and warmer.春季到了,天气变得愈加暖和。

2) The tree has grown much taller than before.这棵树比以前长得高多了。

3、句型3:Subject(主语) + Verb (谓语) + Object (宾语)

这种句型中的动词通常为及物动词, 所谓及物动词,就是这种动词后可以直接接宾语,其宾语一般由名词、代词、动词不定式、动名词或从句等来充当。例:

1) He took his bag and left.(名词) 他拿着书包离开了。

2) Li Lei always helps me when I have difficulties. (代词)当我遇见困难时,李雷总能给我帮助。

3) She plans to travel in the coming May Day.(不定式)她计划在即将来临的“五一”外出旅游。

4) I don’t know what I should do next. (从句)我不了解下一步该做什么。

注意:英语中的很多动词既是及物动词,又是不及物动词。

4、句型4: Subject(主语)+Verb(谓语)+ Indirect object(间接宾语)+Direct object (直接宾语)

这种句型中,直接宾语为主要宾语,表示动作是对哪个做的或为哪个做的,在句中必不可少,常常由表示“物”的名词来充当;间接宾语也被称之为第二宾语,去掉之后,对整个句子的影响不大,多由指“人”的名词或代词承担。引导这种双宾语的容易见到动词有:buy, pass, lend, give, tell, teach, show, bring, send等。如:

1) Her father bought her a dictionary as a birthday present.她父亲给她买了一本词典作为过生日礼物。

2)The old man always tells the children stories about the heroes in the Long March.

老人常常给小孩们讲述长征途中那些英雄的故事。 上述句子还可以表达为:

1)Her father bought a dictionary for her as a birthday present.

2)The old man always tells stories about the heroes to the children in the Long March.

5、句型5: Subject(主语)+Verb (动词)+Object (宾语)+Complement(补语)

这种句型中的“宾语 + 补语”统称为“复合宾语”。宾语补足语的主要用途或者是补充、说明宾语的特征、身份等;或者表示让宾语去完成的动作等。担任补语的常常是名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、分词、动词不定式等。如:

1)You should keep the room clean and tidy. 你应该让屋子维持干干净净。(形容词)

2) We made him our monitor.(名词)大家选他当班长。

3) His father told him not to play in the street.(不定式)他爸爸告诉他不要在街上玩。

4)My father likes to watch the boys playing basketball.(目前分词)

5) Yesterday I had a picture taken with two Americans.(过去分词)

容易见到的动词有: tell, ask, advise, help, want, would like, order, force, allow等。

注意:动词have, make, let, see, hear, notice, feel, watch等后面所接的动词不定式作宾补时,不带to。如:

1) The boss made him do the work all day.老板让他整天做那项工作。

2) I heard her sing in the next room all the time last night.昨天晚上我听见她在隔壁唱了一个晚上。

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